24x7 solar DC heater application system

ecaitsecaits Registered Users Posts: 3

In application, DC electric heater maintain the water (approx 50 liters) temperature to 70 degree using battery bank and PV panels, which will operate 24×7.

How should I design the solar system for this application…

Comments

  • PhotowhitPhotowhit Solar Expert Posts: 4,912 ✭✭✭✭

    Don't know you environmental duties or solar insolation, but something like a thermostat connected to the heater and the heater connected to a battery bank and a set of batteries, I'd run a DC system and have the thermostat run a relay. Figure your maximum daily load and multiply that times the maximum days with out effective sun for your battery storage then multiply that inversely times the maximum you should take the battery banks SOC "State Of Charge". Then take your battery bank capacity and figure a solar array that can charge the batteries at a 13% charge rate.

    Let me ask you, How do I get to Cleveland?

    Home system 4000 watt (Evergreen) array standing, with 2 Midnite Classic Lites,  Midnite E-panel, Prosine 1800 and Exeltech 1100, 660 ah 24v ForkLift battery. Off grid for @16 of last 17 years. Assorted other systems, and to many panels in the closet to not do more...lol
  • ecaitsecaits Registered Users Posts: 3
    Solar insolation is 1000 W/m2. I will use temperature controller and K type thermo-couple to maintain the temperature. 
    Average effective sun light is approx 5 hours/day.
    I will to use DC water heater to heat up the 8 liters of water to 70 C. 
    For 24V DC, I want to know that how much wattage of heater will require to complete the operation.
    How much battery bank and panels will require??
  • PhotowhitPhotowhit Solar Expert Posts: 4,912 ✭✭✭✭

    Well you've given a tiny bit more information, but I'm still trying to get to Cleveland...

    Solar Insolation can be found for your are, it will give better than approx." numbers, it will give history and if in the US you can also find numbers that will reflect the effective numbers given the angle and direction of your array.

    I now have the volume of water, and the desired temperature, Those are 2 of many factors in determining load. Is the water in an open bucket, such as an animal watering bucket? is it in an insolated water heater, how much insolation? What is the environment, if you are in Alaska where the mean temperature is 5 C or in a southwest desert where the temps are 30 C. How often will the water be used and fresh water be brought back up to 70 C? What will be the water's starting temperature?

    8 liters or 2 1/2 gallons of water is not a lot, I suspect you can do this with a fairly small system, if the load is minimal, if it's cycling. 70 degrees is below purification temperature, so I suspect it won't be cycled too often? I think 70 C is also higher temps than is recommended in most water heaters, I think they shoot for 130-150 degrees Fahrenheit. It will likely be a temperature that will require a good bit of insulation and energy to maintain with in a reasonable load.

    Wish I could give you a simple answer, but it's not a simple question.

    Home system 4000 watt (Evergreen) array standing, with 2 Midnite Classic Lites,  Midnite E-panel, Prosine 1800 and Exeltech 1100, 660 ah 24v ForkLift battery. Off grid for @16 of last 17 years. Assorted other systems, and to many panels in the closet to not do more...lol
  • BB.BB. Super Moderators, Administrators Posts: 29,229 admin
    edited June 2016 #5
    I guess you are somewhere about Delhi India?

    So, the amount of sun per day would be around:
    http://solarelectricityhandbook.com/solar-irradiance.html

    Delhi
    Average Solar Insolation figures

    Measured in kWh/m2/day onto a solar panel set at a 61° angle from vertical:
    (For best year-round performance)
    Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
    5.17
     
    5.91
     
    6.48
     
    6.20
     
    5.89
     
    5.42
     
    Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    4.76
     
    4.61
     
    5.28
     
    5.81
     
    5.56
     
    4.96
     
    In general, using a thermal panel (glass cover, metal tubes+plates as collectors+circulating pump) is more efficient and cheaper... However, that can be a lot of plumbing and other issues--So running a solar electric panel + electric heating element can be much easier to maintain.

    A couple of missing questions still--How much water per day do you use--50 liters per day, 500 liters per day--That will define how large of solar array you will need? And will you need water at night (i.e., a battery bank to store energy during the day). A typical number is ~40 liters of hot water per person per day.

    If your total hot water needs per day are "small"--solar electric+heating element can work... However, if you use a lot of hot water and still want to use solar electric panels, resistance based heating is inefficient. Then you would look at a "heat pump" type system which can be upwards of 3 times more efficient (think air conditioning system where the heat pump takes "heat" from warm air and moves it to your hot water tank).

    http://www.geappliances.com/ge/heat-pump-hot-water-heater.htm

    There are lots of different methods to obtain hot water--But really need to understand your needs better to help design a cost effective system for you.

    -Bill
    Near San Francisco California: 3.5kWatt Grid Tied Solar power system+small backup genset
  • PhotowhitPhotowhit Solar Expert Posts: 4,912 ✭✭✭✭

    Delhi rarely gets below freezing;

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_of_Delhi

    A Bread Box type heart is likely all you would ever need, if this is to provide hot water for home use. Cheaper and arguably more reliable than a solar electric system, try to have enough volume for a few days and to even out the heating (takes longer to heat up and cool down)

    https://www.google.com/search?q=bread+box+water+heater&biw=1366&bih=646&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjMysSpiq7NAhXk6IMKHdbHAacQ7AkIPg#imgrc=_

    I've even seen large water containers 55-225 gallon on roofs in Puerto Rico, with no real reflectors or insulation.

    Home system 4000 watt (Evergreen) array standing, with 2 Midnite Classic Lites,  Midnite E-panel, Prosine 1800 and Exeltech 1100, 660 ah 24v ForkLift battery. Off grid for @16 of last 17 years. Assorted other systems, and to many panels in the closet to not do more...lol
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