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Many routers have firmware updates you can install. And there are 3rd party firmware products
for EMP, it's all about the length of the antenna that picks up the pulse. Long wires = fried gear. Big PV arrays are going to get zapped. Idle panels in your bunker, may live. Panels undergound and not connected to anything metalic would live.
You can run all that off the inverter as the installer said. ( Just 1 large appliance at a time )
Seriously. The battery has only so many watt hours stored in it (v x Ah = wh) When you use them up, the battery is dead.
You could run the water heater for an hour, or the fridge for a day, an LED table lamp for a week, or the air conditioner for 3 hours.
Your choice. I'd leave the water heater and window AC un-connected.
Cold temps slow down the chemical reactions in the battery ( Li batteries go downhill fast below +40F)
But I know of nobody who changes charge rates with temps. The BTS (battery temp sensor) with many high end charge controllers, adjusts the charging setpoints + & - according to temps, but not the amps. So I dont think I'd worry about it.